Syrian church of Malabar under British rule


Co-operation between Puthenkoor Syrians and Anglican Missionaries (Establishment  of  Kottayam  Pazhaya Seminary  by British Colonel Monroe ,Vatippanam,Title of Malanakara Metropolitan etc)
Anjengo Fort-English East India Company ‘  first trade settlement in Kerala
English East India Company established a factory at Anjengo in Travancore in 1685 by obtaining land from the Attingal Rani. In the 18th century. the fear of invasion from Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan, forced the government of Travancore to get military protection from the English East India Company. In November 1795, a treaty of perpetual friendship and alliance was signed between the Rajah of Travancore and the East India Company. The treaty was again modified in 1805, which established British paramountcy over Travancore. The treaty made it possible for a permanent presence of a British Resident in the Court of Travancore. The first Resident was Col. Colin Macaulay (1800-1810). He was followed by Col. John Munro (1810-1819). Col Monroe was a strong Anglican Christian and was interested in the CMS and its activity and also in the Malankara Church. The first wave of Protestant Missionary thrust to India was by the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in 1816.   

Malankara Metropolitan was a legal title given to the head of the Puthenkoor Syrian Church by the Governments of Travancore. This title was awarded by a proclamation from the government of Travancore because of the efforts made by Colonel Munro. It was first recommended in 1815, by Colonel Munro, (the British Resident in Travancore and Cochin) that continued till 1877. After 1877, every denomination in the Malankara Church started claiming their prelate as the Malankara Metropolitan.

Kottayam Pazhaya Seminary  of the Orthodox Syrian Church
The Kottayam Pazhaya Seminary  of the Orthodox Syrian Church  was founded in 1815 by Colonel John Monroe to serve the then-unified Malankara Syrian Church and train future missionaries for the Anglican church. For this purpose he invited CMS missionaries to teach theology in this seminary.The Puthenkoor Syrians had no educational institution of its own for the training of candidates to priest hood. To remedy this in 1813 Pulikottil Joseph Ramban, a senior priest of the church from Kunnamkulam took the initiative for a new seminary. Col. John Munro impressed by the plan encouraged Joseph Ramban (Professor Joseph)by all possible means at his disposal. At that time Col. Munroe was both the Resident of the Crown of England and also the Divan (Prime Minister) of the then ruling Rani Laxmi Bhai, the Regent Ruler of Travancore. Hence he was able to give to the church 16 acres of land and the timber for construction of the buildings and also the cost of Rs.2000 for the construction of the Seminary.


In 1808 Marthoma VI (Mar Dionysius I) made an attempt to raise funds from among the community and was able to collect , 840 poovarahans (star pagoda gold coins = Rs 2,940 of that time) from the Malankara Syrian Christian community. To this amount the British resident in Travancore, Col. Macaulay added another 2,160 Poovarahans (Rs 7,560) a contribution from the government of Tranvancore from money collected as fines from Hindus by the Travancore government for their crimes against the Syrian Christians - a total of 3000 Poovarahan equivalent to Rs 10,500/- a large amount at that time. Marthoma VII deposited this money at annual interest of 8% which was to be paid to the Church annually. This investment was called Vattipanam (interest money).
Poo Varahan - Star Pagoda Gold Coin of East India
 Company  was the gold coin minted in Madras during
 1740 -1807 
Soon the resident Col. Munroe came to realize that according to the original stipulation the recipient of the interest - the Vatti Panam -  had to be the Metropolitan of the Puthenkoor syrian Church and that the Seminary needed competent teachers to undertake teaching work in it. It appears that there was some conflict of interest between the Marthoma and Monroe.  The only way to channel the money to his seminary was to make Joseph Ramban  a Bishop.  The only bishop available outside of Marthoma at that time who could lend co-operation to perform the consecration of was the  Metropolitan of Thozhiyur. Thozhiur was glad to extend this courtesy to the Resident when he was so requested.  Joseph Ramban, thus, was ordained as bishop with the name Mar Dionysius II in 1816 and later a Royal proclamation from both the states of Travancore and Cochin were issued to confirm Mar Divanyous  as the Metropolitan of the Puthenkoor church.  But those who insisted on Antiiochian authority within the Church and within the Seminary Staff began to question the validity of Dionysius Episcopal status  because he was ordained from Thozhiyoor Church and not from the Athiochian Church. This party was headed by the Konattu Malpan another Professor at the newly founded seminary. At the time of GeeVarghese mar phelexinos (kidangan) of Thozhiyur (1811-1829) Malankara church was in series of troubles in its administration. Thozhiyur bishop consecrated three consecutive bishops for Malankara as Malankara Methran viz. Pulikkottil Mar Divannasios, Punnathra Mar Divannasios and Cheppat Mar Divannasios.  Even Gee varghese mar Phelexinos (kidangan) himself was in charge of Malankara Methran for a short period.  Thus the church leaders of Malankara Syrian Christian Church and C.M.S. worked together from 1800 up to the later half of the nineteenth century. This is evident from the letter reproduced below from the Metropolitan

Letter written by Punnathra MAR DIONYSIUS, Malankara Metropolitan from 1817 to 1825, addressed to Lord Gambier, President of Church Missionary Society and Bishop Henry, in the year 1821 will give a clear idea about this establishment  [This letter written in Syriac was translated by Professor Lee May and published in the 'Christian Journal and Leterary Register' Volume VII, published in the year 1823.]

Mar Dionysius, metropolitan of the 
Jacobite Syrians  (1817-1825)
In the name of the eternal and necessary existence the Almighty. Mar Dionysius, metropolitan of the Jacobite Syrians in Malabar, subject to the authority of our father, Mar Ignatius, patriarch, who presides in the apostolic see of Antioch of Syria, beloved of the Messiah. Love from Christ and from the people of all the churches to lord Gambier, the illustrious, honourable and renowned president; and to our brother, Mar Henry, the honoured bishop of the city of Gloucester; and to the priests and deacons, and true Christians, great and small, in the church of England, who are devoted to these things, and are mindful of them, who both assist and provide that we should teach and preach the precepts of our Lord Jesus Christ. Love from God, and grace from his only begotten Son, and protection from the Holy Ghost, be with you all evermore! Amen……..

We now have fifty five Jacobite Syrian churches in Malabar and from the power of a kingdom filled with idols the heathen have subdued us Jacobite Syrians just as Pharoah king of Egypt subdued the children of Israel, and had no pity. And, as the Lord sent Moses and Aaron, and delivered the children of Israel from the house of bondage of Pharoah, king of Egypt; so the Lord beheld our sorrows and afflictions; and there have been sent to us an illustrious leader, named Macaulay, and Mar Buchanan, the illustrious priest: and when they came to us, and saw our subjugation, and sorrow, and poverty, they brought us forth from the house of bondage, and consoled us with kind words, and assisted us with money.

Claudius Buchanan (1766-1815)
"After this, another illustrious leader was sent to us, named Munro as Joshua, the son of Nun, brought Israel to the land of promise, and put them in possession of Canaan; so did this illustrious, discerning, and prudent leader, bring back and save us poor people from the hand of violence: and he built a school and one church for us, in the place called Cotayam; which he did with great trouble, labour, and expense, in order that our eyes, made dim by the depth of our poverty, may be opened by the knowledge of the declarations of the holy and divine books. All the deacons, moreover, and children, who are taught in the school of our place, are cherished by the assistance of this illustrious leader."

Besides, James, the honoured priest, will make known to you all that is going on among us. And I, the Metropolitan Mar Dionysius, your friend, very cordially salute you also Abraham the priest, our obedient servant, and all the deacons, and children that are in the school. All the priests, moreover, and deacons, and the whole congregation of Christians who are in all the churches in Malabar, salute you. May grace be with you all: even so. Amen !

Our Father which art in heaven &c. Remain firm in the power of Jesus! In the year of our Lord 1821. On the third of the month Ranun the first, Friday. From the school of Cotym. (Signed) MAR DIONYSÍUS, Metropolitan of Malabar

The beginning of the Seminary synchronized with the arrival of Church Missionary Society (C.M.S) Missionaries to Kerala The missionaries were teaching Bible and biblical languages in the Seminary. The early principals were Rev.Benjamin Bailey, Rev.Henry Baker etc.

Suppressing the opposition from Caste Hindus

  Chengannur Syrian Church, St. John's  church at Pampakuda founded by  Abraham Malpan  on 12 Oct 1825 , Paliakkara St.George Church Thiruvalla founded in 1815




In those days the Puthenkoor Syrian Christians, in their work of church extension, had to encounter such opposition from the heathen Hindus around them as Protestant missionaries have since experienced in that part of India. At Chenganur the Puthenkoor Syrians had some difficulty in reaching their church from the river side, in consequence of having to pass a Hindoo temple; and to obviate this a direct road was opened by authority, but a heathen Hindu party, headed by the petty Bajah of the place, tried, in every possible way, to prevent the Puthenkoor Syrians using the road when made; and it required the strong hand of the British Resident  to put them down. In Mamalashery parish, at a place called Pampacuda, a new church, erected in 1823, met with the most determined opposition from the Brahmins and Nairs of the place, who made many false statements to prevent the completion of the work; these, however, were duly examined and inquired by British Resident  , and eventually pronounced unreasonable objections.

Account taken from the book  “Lingerings of Light in a Dark Land”, by Rev Thomas Whitehouse, published in 1873                                   
“The church which the Brahmins built"-Paliakkara Church, Tiruvalla

Paliakkara Church Thiruvalla founded in 1815

At Tiruwalla the Puthnkoor Syrian community, who were connected with the old parish of Neranum, first of all erected a temporary church of bamboos mid mats ; but the Brahmins and Nairs, to show their indignation, set fire to the edifice, which was speedily reduced to ashes.
British Resident Colonel Munro, to put an effectual check to proceedings of this kind, fined the caste Hindoos of the neighborhood 67,000 fanams ; which led to the stone structure eventually built in its place, being called “The church which the Brahmins built" This was a sore matter to the heathen Hindus, who, for many years after, when they wished specially to annoy the Puthenkoor Syrians would tauntingly say

“ Your fathers (meaning the English) are now about to evacuate the country “.  

Account taken from the book  “Lingerings of Light in a Dark Land”, by Rev Thomas Whitehouse, published in 1873


The rulers of the land of Tiruvalla were a group of Brahmin families called “Pathillathil Potties”. Those who opposed the church formation went to one of the Potties and got a stay order in the subject. Thus a strong dispute got arise between Christians and upper caste-Hindus of the place. One day, there occurred a debate between the Brahmins and several Christians over the issue of church foundation at the Kaavil Street. During the conversation, one of the Brahmins took a pledge that “Thiruvallayappanaane ningal palli Vekkilla” (In the name of Sri Vallabha, I pledge that you will not build the church).  But the Puthenkoor syrians  built a small church with coconut leaves and bamboos.Some caste Hindus put the small   shed into fire on the very next day. The leaders of those who built the church were in fury. They rushed to Trivandrum  .As Travancore was under strong British influence at that time, they   saw Colonel Monroe, the British resident to Travancore state.   Colonel Monroe ordered that a new church is to be built at the same place of the old one at the expense of those who fired the temporary church with additional fine of 8000 rupees.  Thus the church was rebuilt and the balance amount was donated for the building of Kottayam Seminary which was built in the same period.

In 1808 Marthoma VI (Mar Dionysius I) made an attempt to raise funds from among the community and was able to collect, 840 poovarahans (star pagoda gold coins = Rs 2,940 of that time) from the Malankara Puthenkoor Syrian Christian community. To this amount the British resident in Travancore, Col. Macaulay added another 2,160 Poovarahans (Rs 7,560) a contribution from the government of Tranvancore from money collected as fines from Hindus by the Travancore government for their “crimes against the Syrian Christians” - a total of 3000 Poovarahan equivalent to Rs 10,500/- a large amount at that time. Marthoma VII deposited this money at annual interest of 8% which was to be paid to the Church annually. This investment was called Vattipanam (interest money).

Violent measures adopted to subjugate the Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholics

British Raj (ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് രാജ്)
When, the healthy influence of British rule (the beginning of British Raj ബ്രിട്ടീഷ് രാജ്) began to be felt in Travancore, some of the Puthenkoor Syrians(Non Catholic Syrian Christians) made a formal complaint to the native court that the Pazhayakoor Syrians (Catholic St Thomas Christians, പഴയകൂര് ) retained forcible possession(?) of certain churches against the wishes of the people. Upon this request the British Resident, Colonel Munro, issued an order that the church at Piravom (Valiyapalli now Piravom Jacobite syrian church), the Valiapally of Kottayam(Now Knanaya/thekumbagam church), Church at aleppy (Now Holy cross Syro Malabar church) and the Old Syrian church of Changanashery (Now St marys Syro Malabar church or old church), should be given over to the Puthenkoor Syrian party. The Church Missionaries supported by the British colonial force, assisted the Puthecoor fraction as far as they could in this matter.Later the Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholic fraction were expelled from Piravom and Kottayam valiyapalli. However unprecedented protests that followed soon under the leadership of the Vicar General of the Syrian Catholic diocese and thousands of faithful which included a large number of men as well as  women,children of both the parishes marched ahead without fearing the cruel atrocities of the British as well as the local government authorities, and very soon it became a serious law & order problem.Finally the British and the local government authorities had to yield to the will of the majority and stop all the atrocities against the parishioners. Later the Changanassery & Aleppy churh reverted back to Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholic control after the separation of Jacobite and Catholic factions during early 1800s. This was One of the most unfortunate events happened in the history of Syrian Christians.


“The Puthenkoor Syraians were very anxious to  gain control over of four of those venerable churches ( Kottayam Valiyapalli, Pravom  Holy Magi church, Syrian church at Changanacherry, Mar Sleeva church Aleppy , all  these churches were under the Pazhayakoor Syrian catholics) and an effort was made with the help of Col. Munro, at that time the british resident of travancoor to expel the Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholics from these parishes, but so strongly was their resumption opposed by the Pazhayakoor Syrian catholic party, that the affair ended in a “Compromise” ( The Pazhayakoor Fraction were forced accept a compromise because the  British authorities even took control of theses churches with the help of the their army and appointed priests from the Puthenkoor  fraction. The Faithfull’s of these Pazhayakoor syrian catholic churches which included a large number of women as well as children who protested against this injustice were suppressed with the help of British army, even the Syrian catholic Vicar general who arrived to help his flock was put in prison), by which it was agreed that the Pazhayakoor Syrians should handover two of their churches to the Puthenkoor Syrians (Valiapally or Great Church at Cottayam and Piravom Holy Magi Church )

Takeover of Piravom Church & Anglican Protestant iconoclasm
[Iconoclasm of is the deliberate destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually with religious or political motives.]

By the dawn of the 19th century  the British had established themselves in India and Kerala had come under their sway. The Kerala of today included then the 3 regions of Travancore, Cochin and Malabar. The first two of them were native states each ruled by its own King, and the third included the territories of Samuthiri of Kozhikode which the British had annexed to the Madras province of British India. The two native states had accepted the political Legemony of the British. A resident on them was appointed to preserve the interest of British East India Company and later on of the British Crown. It was while Col. Macaulay was in office a Trust Fund of Puthenkoor Syrians(Jacobites) was instituted with the East India Company to yield 8% annual interest. Col. Munro who succeeded Macaulay in 1810 desired that it would be possible in course of time to work out a way for the Puthenkoor Jacobite fraction to cooperate with the Anglican Church. He helped the Puthenkoor Jacobite fraction in various ways. Accounts of Piravom including the expulsion of Pazhayakoor catholic fraction can be found in the book, “Lingerings of Light in a Dark Land”, by Rev Thomas Whitehouse, published in 1873. The author clearly made considerable effort to visit the Piravom church during the early 1860s for the purpose of historical researches. His account provides interesting details of the church, its prominent location, struggle for control between Catholic and Antiochean factions, iconoclasm imposed by CMS missionaries’ among the Puthenkoor Jacobite fraction etc.

Piravom Valiyapally  popularly known as Rajakkalude Pally ("Church of the Kings") രാജാക്കന്മാരുടെ പള്ളി, മർത്തമറിയം പള്ളി, പിറവം പുത്തൻകൂർ പള്ളി ]

"The church at Puruwum or Purom, also in the “Pepper Kingdom” belongs to the Southerns; and is most pleasantly situated, occupying an elevated position on the banks of a river, which is the chief way into the interior of this ancient principality. [Rev. Whitehouse states that the Piravom church was controlled by the Southists. As far as we know majority of the Southists in Piravom are Syro Malabar Catholics. It is possible that they had control of the church prior to separation of Jacobite and Catholic factions in early 1800s.] When, however, the healthy influence of British rule began to be felt in Travancore, some of the Syrian Christians made a formal complaint to the native court that the Romanists retained forcible possession of certain churches against the wishes of the people. Upon this the British Resident, Colonel Munro, issued an order that the church at Purom, the Valiapally of Kottayam, and the church of Changanashery, should be given over to the Syrian party. Their friends, the Church Missionaries, assisted them as far as they could in this matter.

Across the river, crowning a rocky eminence, and embosomed in rich tropical verdure. In 1863 there were six Cattanars con- nected with it, and not quite 200 houses.When the Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholics vacated the place, nearly half a century ago (i.e 1810 AD), there being a division of property, they took with them only half their images. Those left behind being likely to prove a snare to the Syrians, were wisely removed, under the sanction of their Metran.

Iconoclasm 
The late excellent senior Missionary has again and again narrated the story of their removal to the writer. These images had been made at Goa, were well executed, and of considerable value; and therefore it went sorely against the grain with some of the people to part with them. Like Laban, when he lost his gods, they were for rallying their forces and going after the mission boat in which they have been stowed; but by an extra effort the boatmen escaped them; and conveyed them to Cottayam, where they were safely housed in a lumber room on top of the old Syrian college. For years they rested there in peace, neglected and forgotten, till some repairs of the structure brought them to light. The missionary recommended their destruction, since they might lead to evil; but the Metran then running, a man of vacillating character, was for compromise, and suggested that they should be sold to the Romanists! This, of course, in principle, was decidedly objected to. At last the Metran and his staff were induced to visit them; it being thought that sight of them might alter his opinion, and bring him to the right decision. The Missionary(CMS) presently called for a chopper, and with the tacit, but very reluctant consent of the Metran, began to hew them in pieces – the younger students looking on with a kind of horror, as if they expected divine judgment to paralyze the arm of the unsparing iconoclast. Had it not been for the decided action taken by the truest friends of the Syrian church, it is to be feared the people of Purom would, through their images, again have come under the power of Rome. This simple fact serves to show how thoroughly Romanized many of the image-hating Syrians were when our mission was first established among them.

Visit of the Magi-Murals in Piravom church
[Interesting to note that here white house states that the veneration of images or Icons (Not statues) among the Jacobites Christians as a Roman influence. This single incident shows the influence of Anglican missionaries among the non catholic fraction of Syrian Christians at that time. ] What the imagery of the church may have been, can be easily inferred from elaborate reredos (wall behind the altar) still standing behind the chief altar, which is wood, though two modern side altars are of stone. The lower part of the reredos is adorned with bold alto-relievo carving; the upper has three principal compartments, representing the birth of Christ, the visit of the Magi, and the presentation in the Temple. In 1863 they had been fresh painted – about four years previously – and therefore presented a bright and showy aspect, which contrasted strangely with the otherwise dirty and poverty-stricken look of the edifice.

A heathen temple of considerable antiquity, called Chairycum Umbalam, stands near the church, but on lower ground. A local tradition for this is as follows:- When the Christians and Heathen were contemplating building, each wanted the high site; upon which a trial of the power of their sacred images was proposed, and accordingly one of Virgin, and another of some Hindoo swamy were thrown into the river; the later sank, the former swam and had the priority of choice! There is, however, this insuperable difficulty in the way – the Syrians abhorred images prior to the coming of the Romish Missionaries; and therefore we can regard this story as nothing else than a legendary mode of accounting for the singular fact that, in an essentially heathen state, the Christian church occupies a better position than the Hindoo pagoda. May it not indicate that, old as the Pagoda is, the Christians built their place of worship before the heathen did theirs?"


Changanacherry Pazhaya Suriyani Palli & Allepy Holy Cross Church 
St. mary's Church, Changanacherry (ചങ്ങനാശേര്രി ചെറിയ പള്ളി )
Account taken from the book  “Lingerings of Light in a Dark Land”, by Rev Thomas Whitehouse, published in 1873.

Entering into the open Backwater between Cottayam and Alleppy now a broad lake nine miles across — and entering the mouth of one of the many streams which flow into it, the traveller will pass Kav§ilum, another little Protestant church, connected formerly with the Pallum Mission ; and if there be abundance of  water, as in the monsoon season, he may cross the country, by  some of the numerous water channels, to the old Syrian town of Changanashery — busy, bustling, money-loving ; and if it be market day he will be surprised at the little fleet of canoes moored at its landing place.
                                             
When the Church Missionary Society Mission was established Changanashery was represented to them and to the British Resident as one of the churches with Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholic, and which the Puthenkoor Jacobite Syrians wished to recover for themselves. Accordingly efforts were made (as  stated below) to take over the church to the jurisdiction of the Puthenkoor Syrian Metran, but these proved abortive.

When, however, the healthy influence of British rule began to be felt in Travancore, some of the Syrian Christians made a formal complaint to the native court that the Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholics retained forcible possession of certain churches against the wishes of the people. Upon this the British Resident, Colonel Munro, issued an order that the church at Purom, the Valiapally of Kottayam, and the church of Changanashery, Aleppy should be given over to the Puthenkoor Syrian party. Their friends, the Church Missionaries, assisted them as far as they could in this matter. But two of the churches the last named a great crowd of Pazhayakoor Catholic Syrians assembled to prevent access to the church door. One of the Missionaries, however, cleverly threw a handful of chuckrams — the small silver coin of the country — among the people, and this had the effect of clearing a way to the main entrance, which a native blacksmith soon forced open, whereupon a Cattanar of Niranam church, entering the building, read an official document, declaring it henceforth to be used as formerly, for Puthenkoor Jacobite Syrian worship.


The takeover of catholic majority parishes in changanachery and Aleppy lead to great protests and mass revolt. The British man Mr. Fenn tried to capture these parishes and hand it over to the Church at Niranam in the pretext that these churches were once the chapels of the Church at Niranam. The then British rulers even took control of the churches with the help of the local government and appointed priests from the Niranam Church. However unprecedented protests that followed soon under the leadership of the Vicar General of the Catholic diocese and thousands of faithful which included a large number of men as well as women, of both the parishes marched ahead without fearing the cruel atrocities of the British as well as the local government authorities, and very soon it became a serious law & order problem. 'The Syrian catholic Vicar general who arrived to help his flock was put in prison. Notwithstanding threats and punishments, the Pazhayakoor Syrian Catholic party, which included women and children, could not be driven out. They were so determined, that nothing short of death could make them move from the church. They lay in the street to prevent others from entering the Church'. This was one of the greatest revolts by any Christian group against the Government here after the forced latinization made by the Portuguese. Finally the British and the local government authorities had to yield to the will of the majority and stop all the atrocities against the parishioners and accept the reality that the majority cannot be overruled by a small minority even-though the later are enriched with money or other means.


6 comments:

  1. You are talking as these home churches of the St.Thomas Christians should not have been given to puthencoor faction!!.....what kind of logic is that??......there are many instances where the jacobites built a new church by giving their traditional churches (St.Thomas Christian Churches) to pazhayakoor faction........pazhyacoor and puthencoor factions are St.Thomas Christians, and as the children of the same family, both are eligible to the properties of the St.Thomas Christians...if there is a law, it should be applicable to both parties....both parties lost and gained some.....

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  2. Please don't make your blog biased

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  3. Colonel Munro and Macaulay were biased to the Puthencoor, due to the Puthencoor's cooperation with the CMS, at that period of time.

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  4. Colonel Munro and Macaulay were biased to the Puthencoor, due to the Puthencoor's cooperation with the CMS, at that period of time.

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  5. This may be true. However did you ever thought how the Portuguese and Palliveettil Chandy reclaimed 84 churches from the Archdeacon Thoma to the Roman Catholic fold? The Portuguese did 10 times worser things than the British...Don't forget that many of the churches now with the Syro-Malabar Catholics was taken from the Puthenkoor Syrians by force with the help of local kings and with the might of the military power. Roman Catholics had a bad history of killing or torturing people for submission to thier fold. If you go search the world history,you may know better about this...

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  6. This may be true. However did you ever thought how the Portuguese and Palliveettil Chandy reclaimed 84 churches from the Archdeacon Thoma to the Roman Catholic fold? The Portuguese did 10 times worser things than the British...Don't forget that many of the churches now with the Syro-Malabar Catholics was taken from the Puthenkoor Syrians by force with the help of local kings and with the might of the military power. Roman Catholics had a bad history of killing or torturing people for submission to thier fold. If you go search the world history,you may know better about this...

    ReplyDelete